Wikipedia & Linterweb

28 mai 2009

Nutrition: How to Eat Healthy and Stick to It  

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 0:29

If you are feeling confused about what to eat, you are not alone. You have probably heard some fitness experts talk about good foods, bad foods, healthy foods, and clean foods. Some talk about food like it’s a drug. Others spend time trying to stay away from some of their favorite foods. And then there are the food police who shame you for, let’s say, eating dessert (Are you really going to eat that cookie?) as if one cookie will ruin your life forever. These are the best diet pills.

Every diet guru talks about what to eat. Instead, I will like to discuss why we eat the way we do and how we can change that. The purpose of this article is to share the science and strategy you need to get the results you want.

I. The Science of Healthy Eating

We will examine the science behind why we crave juck food and how food scientist create foods that leads to cravings

II. How to Make Healthy Eating Easier

We will look into the importance of the environment for healthy eating. How you can eat healthy without noticing. Then  we will discuss on some idea on what to eat, ways to eat healthy without feeling guilty.

III. How to Stick to a Healthy Eating Habit

We will address the root problem to your unhealthy eating habit. Teach you how to Say No to Temptation with a one word phrase that will help you eat healthy for the rest of your life.

I. The Science of Healthy Eating

The benefits of good nutrition are fairly obvious to most of us. You have more energy, your health improves, and your productivity blossoms. Healthy eating also plays a huge role in maintaining a healthy weight, which means a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart problems, high blood pressure, and a host of other health ailments. (Genetics also plays a significant role.)


But if there are so many good reasons for healthy eating, why is it so difficult to actually do? To answer that question, we should start by learning why we crave junk food. 



Why We Crave Junk Food


Steven Witherly is a food scientist who has spent the last 20 years studying what makes certain foods more addictive than others. Much of the science that follows is from his excellent report, Why Humans Like Junk Food.

According to Witherly, when you eat tasty food, there are two factors that make the experience pleasurable.

First, there is the sensation of eating the food. This includes what it tastes like (salty, sweet, umami, etc.), what it smells like, and how it feels in your mouth. This last quality known as “orosensation” can be particularly important. Food companies will spend millions of dollars to discover the most satisfying level of crunch in a potato chip. Food scientists will test for the perfect amount of fizzle in a soda. These elements all combine to create the sensation that your brain associates with a particular food or drink.

The second factor is the actual macronutrient makeup of the food — the blend of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates that it contains. In the case of junk food, food manufacturers are looking for a perfect combination of salt, sugar, and fat that excites your brain and gets you coming back for more. This is how alpilean works.

Here’s how they do it…


How Food Scientists Create Cravings

There is a range of factors that scientists and food manufacturers use to make food more addictive.

Dynamic contrast. Dynamic contrast refers to a combination of different sensations in the same food. In the words of Witherly, foods with dynamic contrast have “an edible shell that goes crunch followed by something soft or creamy and full of taste-active compounds. This rule applies to a variety of our favorite food structures; the caramelized top of a creme brulee, a slice of pizza, or an Oreo cookie, the brain finds crunching through something like this very novel and thrilling.”

Salivary response. Salivation is part of the experience of eating food, and the more a food causes you to salivate, the more it will swim throughout your mouth and cover your taste buds. For example, emulsified foods like butter, chocolate, salad dressing, ice cream, and mayonnaise promote a salivary response that helps to fload your taste buds with goodness. This is one reason why many people enjoy foods that have sauces on them. The result is that foods that promote salivation do a happy little tap dance on your brain and taste better than ones that don’t.

Rapid food meltdown and vanishing caloric density. Foods that rapidly vanish or “melt in your mouth” signal to your brain that you’re not eating as much as you actually are. In other words, these foods literally tell your brain that you’re not full, even though you’re eating a lot of calories.


Sensory-specific response. Your brain likes variety. When it comes to food, if you experience the same taste over and over again, then you start to get less pleasure from it. In other words, the sensitivity of that specific sensor will decrease over time. This can happen in just minutes.

Junk foods, however, are designed to avoid this sensory specific response. They provide enough taste to be interesting (your brain doesn’t get tired of eating them), but it’s not so stimulating that your sensory response is dulled. This is why you can swallow an entire bag of potato chips and still be ready to eat another. To your brain, the crunch and sensation of eating Doritos is novel and interesting every time.


Memories of past eating experiences. This is where the psychobiology of junk food really works against you. When you eat something tasty (say, a cookie), your brain registers that feeling. The next time you see that food, smell that food, or even read about that food, your brain starts to trigger the memories and responses that came when you ate it. These memories can actually cause physical responses like salivation and create the “mouth-watering” craving that you get when thinking about your favorite foods.

These factors all combine to make processed food tasty and desirable to our human brains. When you combine the science behind these foods with the incredible prevalence of food (cheap fast food everywhere), eating healthy becomes very hard to do.


II. How to Make Healthy Eating Easier

Most people think that building better habits or changing your actions is all about willpower or motivation. But the more I learn, the more I believe that the number one driver of behavior change is your environment.

Your environment has an incredible ability to shape your behavior. Nowhere is this more true than with food. What we eat on a daily basis is often a result of what we are presented.

Let me share an interesting experiment to show you exactly what I mean…

The Importance of Environment for Healthy Eating

Anne Thorndike is a primary care physician at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Thorndike and her colleagues conducted a six-month study that was published in the American Journal of Public Health.

This study secretly took place in the hospital cafeteria and helped thousands of people develop healthy eating habits without changing their willpower or motivation in the slightest way. Thorndike and her team utilized a concept known as “choice architecture.” Choice architecture is just a fancy word for changing the way the food and drinks are displayed, but, as it turns out, it makes a big difference.

The researchers started by changing the way drinks were displayed in the cafeteria. Originally, all refrigerators were filled with carbonated soft drinks. The researchers made sure that water was added to each refrigerator and also placed baskets of bottled water throughout the room.

What happened? Over the next 3 months, the number of soda sales dropped by 11.4 percent. Meanwhile, bottled water sales increased by 25.8 percent.

Similar adjustments and results were made with food options. Nobody said a word to the people who ate at the cafeteria. The researchers simply changed the environment and people naturally followed suit.

Choice architecture is even more important when you’re already stressed, tired, or distracted. If you’re already worn-down, you’re probably not going to go through a lot of effort to cook a healthy dinner or fit in a workout. You’ll grab or do whatever is easiest.

That means that if you take just a little bit of time today to organize your room, your office, your kitchen, and other areas, then that adjustment in choice architecture can guide you toward better choices even when your willpower is fading.

How to Eat Healthy Without Noticing

Brian Wansink is a professor at Cornell University, and he has completed a variety of studies on how your environment shapes your eating decisions. Many of the ideas below come from his popular book, Mindless Eating. Here are some of his best practical strategies for using choice architecture to make healthy eating easier.

1. Use smaller plates. Bigger plates mean bigger portions. And that means you eat more. According to a study conducted by Wansink and his research team, if you made a simple change and served your dinner on 10-inch plates instead of a 12-inch plate, you would eat 22% less food over the course of the next year.

On a related note, if you’re thinking “I’ll just put less food on my plate” … it’s not that simple. The picture below explains why. When you eat a small portion off of a large plate, your mind feels unsatisfied. Meanwhile, the same portion will feel more filling when eaten off of a small plate. The circles in the image below are the same size, but your brain (and stomach) doesn’t view them that way.

2. Want to drink less alcohol or soda? Use tall, slender glasses instead of short, fat ones.

Our brain has a tendency to overestimate vertical lines. In other words, taller drinks look bigger to our eyes than round, horizontal mugs do. And because height makes things look bigger than width, you’ll actually drink less from taller glasses. In fact, you will typically drink about 20% less from a tall, slender glass than you would from a short, big glass.

3. Use plates that have a high contrast color with your food. When the color of your plate matches the color of your food, you naturally serve yourself more because your brain has trouble distinguishing the portion size from the plate. Because of this, dark green and dark blue make great plate colors because they contrast with light foods like pasta and potatoes (which means you’re likely to serve less of them), but don’t contrast very much with leafy greens and vegetables (which means you’re likely to put more of them on your plate).

4. Display healthy foods in a prominent place. For example, you could place a bowl of fruits or nuts near the front door or somewhere else that you pass by before you leave the house. When you’re hungry and in a rush, you are more likely to grab the first thing you see.

5. Wrap unhealthy foods in tin foil. Wrap healthy foods in plastic wrap. The old saying, “out of sight, out of mind” turns out to have some truth to it. Eating isn’t just a physical event, but also an emotional one. Your mind often determines what it wants to eat based on what your eyes see. Thus, if you hide unhealthy foods by wrapping them up or tucking them away in less prominent places, then you are less likely to eat them.

6. Keep healthy foods in larger packages and containers, and unhealthy foods in smaller ones. Big boxes and containers tend to catch your eye more, take up space in your kitchen and pantry, and otherwise get in your way. As a result, you’re more likely to notice them and eat them. Meanwhile, smaller items can hide in your kitchen for months. (Just take a look at what you have lying around right now. It’s probably small cans and containers.)

26 mai 2009

Frises comparatives

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 18:23


Un nouvel outil disponible sur wikiwix , la frise comparative entre les différentes personnalités.

Ce gadget permet de se rendre compte en un clin d’oeil quels étaient les contemporains de Beaudelaire ou bien de répondre à la question « Abraham Lincoln et Beaudelaire auraient-ils pu prendre un café ensemble », toujours utile si vous êtes sélectionné en tant qu’ami à Qui veut gagner des Millions :).

Un clic sur le nom d’une personnalité vous permet d’avoir une infobulle reliant les articles de Wikipedia ou bien une frise représentant les personnes qui ont traversé la vie de celle-ci.

Le formulaire en haut à droite permet d’atteindre directement une période ou une année précise.

Plus sérieusement, cette nouvelle frise s’inscrit dans le travail de fourmi que nous effectuons en ce moment grâce au travail de la communauté Wikipedia.

En effet, la richesse des documents produits nous permet d’envisager des formes de visualisation originales.

Imaginez la quantité de papiers qu’il faudrait afin de réaliser l’intégralité de ces frises.

Cette outil est accessible sur Wikipedia en plaçant dans votre fichier Monobook.js cette commande :


Il inaugure par là même une nouvelle WikiwixSearch qui améliore les fonctionnalités du moteur de recherche du MediaWiki.

Mais avant tout, nous allons rendre disponible ces frises pour les autres langues.

Je remercie une fois encore la communauté Wikipedia qui grâce à son travail permet des innovations en matière de développement informatique.

Pascal Martin

14 mai 2009

Recherchons Beta testeur pour Okawix

Filed under: okawix — Pascal Martin @ 2:22


Nous recherchons des beta testeurs pour la première version d’Okawix.

En effet, entre deux clients nous avons dégagé un peu de temps pour finaliser notre version d’Okawix, principalement sous Macintosh car même si nous avons un mac mini nous rencontrions énormément de problème avec cette OS.

Nous avons tenu compte des divers remarques formulé par Derckson, qui se reconaitra et de Martin Walker.

Okawix est un logiciel qui permet de visualiser les articles de Wikipedia en mode déconnecté.

La sortie officielle est prévu pour le 1 Juin, en fonction des différents retour que nous pourrons avoir.


Pascal Martin

12 mai 2009

Fin des travaux de rénovation

Filed under: actualité — Pascal Martin @ 21:07


Suite à la coupure du courant cf le dernier billet, nous en avons profité pour renforcer notre infrastructure matérielle.

Nous avions remplacé deux tours par des racks qui permettent une meilleure endurance et un gain de place significatifs.

Nous avons également remis en place les données ( 1.5 Tera octets ) sur deux disques durs, afin de permettre une sécurisation partielle de ces dernières.

online research papers

De ce fait si, aucune image n »est accessible sur le site.

Et aujourd »hui est venu se greffer une coupure d »adsl pendant une bonne partie de la journée.

Voilà, mais ca se termine , le chantier changement de matériel se cloture demain.

Bonne soirée.

6 mai 2009

Rétablissement progressif de la situation

Filed under: actualité — Pascal Martin @ 22:47

Suite à un violent orage dans la nuit du 15 avril, le data center Renater du Crihan a subi une coupure de courant au delà de la charge tenu par les onduleurs, cette coupure a eu des répercutions sur l’infrastructure électrique du crihan qui a été rétabli dans la journée du 15 avril, par voie de fait, l’adsl de la région rouennaise se trouvait également pertubée.
Le 17 avril, une grève intempestive de EDF a provoqué de nouvelles coupures sur le réseau du Crihan et qui viennent tout juste d’être rétabli. Ces 2 évenements consécutifs ne sont pas représentatifs de la qualité de service du Crihan, les répercutions sur ces incidents en globe l’université de Rouen, sur l’administration rouennaise et internet en Haute Normandie font que ce sont des évènements exceptionnels et la réactivité du Crihan est à la hauteur de ces répercutions.
Ces deux coupures de courant consécutives ont impactées grandement notre infrastructure et nous avons perdu deux disques durs sur la même machine.
Et comme nous étions en période de vacances scolaires notre effectif était réduit au service minimum.
Du coup le blog et le site officiel de Linterweb ont été indisponible pendant 15 jours.
Pascal Martin

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