Wikipedia & Linterweb

4 juillet 2009

Du nouveau sur les frises !

Filed under: frise — Matthieu @ 16:16

Bonjour à tous,
Depuis fin mai, la société Linterweb propose aux internautes un programme générant des frises chronologiques permettant de visualiser de manière riche et innovante les informations présentes sur Wikipédia.
Deux types de frises sont disponibles.
– Le premier, la frise généraliste, situe les personnalités les plus importantes sur une ligne des temps à l’échelle des siècles, le long de viagra alternative laquelle on peut se déplacer aisément à la souris. Pour chacune de ces personnalités, un trait s’étire sur la frise entre la date de naissance et la date de mort de la personnalité, dont le nom est inscrit au-dessus de son trait.
En cliquant sur le nom, on affiche une bulle reproduisant le début de la biographie Wikipédia de cette personnalité, ainsi qu’une petite photo en médaillon. Cliquer sur le nom de la personnalité
Robes de bal courte dans cette bulle ouvre l’article Wikipédia correspondant, et le lien « Frise des contemporains » permet de centrer la frise autour de la personnalité en question.
En haut à droite, un petit formulaire permet d’accéder directement à une année ou une personnalité donnée.
Le deuxième type de frise, au lieu de se contenter du contenu de la Wikipédia, se base en plus sur celui de Wikinews. Deux frises sont superposées. La première, à l’échelle d’une dizaine des jours et par défaut centrée sur la journée en cours, situe sur la frise des évènements d’actualités issus de Wikinews. La seconde,
Ball Gown robes de mariée composée de trois sous-frises (Évènements, Naissances, Morts), et à l’échelle d’une cinquantaine d’années, affiche quels évènements se sont produits, sur ces années, le même jour qu’un jour donné (par défaut la date du jours en cours).
Un morceau de code javascript vous permet, par simple copier-coller sur votre site web personnel, d’y introduire la frise pour en faire profiter vos visiteurs.

Ces deux outils, d’ores et déjà disponibles en de nombreuses langues, s’inscrivent dans une série d’outils développés depuis déjà plusieurs années par la société Linterweb, dont un moteur de recherche restreignant les résultats aux projets de la fondation Wikimédia, et un DVD comprenant environ 2000 articles de la Wikipédia anglophone.

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28 mai 2009

Nutrition: How to Eat Healthy and Stick to It  

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 0:29

If you are feeling confused about what to eat, you are not alone. You have probably heard some fitness experts talk about good foods, bad foods, healthy foods, and clean foods. Some talk about food like it’s a drug. Others spend time trying to stay away from some of their favorite foods. And then there are the food police who shame you for, let’s say, eating dessert (Are you really going to eat that cookie?) as if one cookie will ruin your life forever. These are the best diet pills.

Every diet guru talks about what to eat. Instead, I will like to discuss why we eat the way we do and how we can change that. The purpose of this article is to share the science and strategy you need to get the results you want.

I. The Science of Healthy Eating

We will examine the science behind why we crave juck food and how food scientist create foods that leads to cravings

II. How to Make Healthy Eating Easier

We will look into the importance of the environment for healthy eating. How you can eat healthy without noticing. Then  we will discuss on some idea on what to eat, ways to eat healthy without feeling guilty.

III. How to Stick to a Healthy Eating Habit

We will address the root problem to your unhealthy eating habit. Teach you how to Say No to Temptation with a one word phrase that will help you eat healthy for the rest of your life.

I. The Science of Healthy Eating

The benefits of good nutrition are fairly obvious to most of us. You have more energy, your health improves, and your productivity blossoms. Healthy eating also plays a huge role in maintaining a healthy weight, which means a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart problems, high blood pressure, and a host of other health ailments. (Genetics also plays a significant role.)


But if there are so many good reasons for healthy eating, why is it so difficult to actually do? To answer that question, we should start by learning why we crave junk food. 



Why We Crave Junk Food


Steven Witherly is a food scientist who has spent the last 20 years studying what makes certain foods more addictive than others. Much of the science that follows is from his excellent report, Why Humans Like Junk Food.

According to Witherly, when you eat tasty food, there are two factors that make the experience pleasurable.

First, there is the sensation of eating the food. This includes what it tastes like (salty, sweet, umami, etc.), what it smells like, and how it feels in your mouth. This last quality known as “orosensation” can be particularly important. Food companies will spend millions of dollars to discover the most satisfying level of crunch in a potato chip. Food scientists will test for the perfect amount of fizzle in a soda. These elements all combine to create the sensation that your brain associates with a particular food or drink.

The second factor is the actual macronutrient makeup of the food — the blend of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates that it contains. In the case of junk food, food manufacturers are looking for a perfect combination of salt, sugar, and fat that excites your brain and gets you coming back for more. This is how alpilean works.

Here’s how they do it…


How Food Scientists Create Cravings

There is a range of factors that scientists and food manufacturers use to make food more addictive.

Dynamic contrast. Dynamic contrast refers to a combination of different sensations in the same food. In the words of Witherly, foods with dynamic contrast have “an edible shell that goes crunch followed by something soft or creamy and full of taste-active compounds. This rule applies to a variety of our favorite food structures; the caramelized top of a creme brulee, a slice of pizza, or an Oreo cookie, the brain finds crunching through something like this very novel and thrilling.”

Salivary response. Salivation is part of the experience of eating food, and the more a food causes you to salivate, the more it will swim throughout your mouth and cover your taste buds. For example, emulsified foods like butter, chocolate, salad dressing, ice cream, and mayonnaise promote a salivary response that helps to fload your taste buds with goodness. This is one reason why many people enjoy foods that have sauces on them. The result is that foods that promote salivation do a happy little tap dance on your brain and taste better than ones that don’t.

Rapid food meltdown and vanishing caloric density. Foods that rapidly vanish or “melt in your mouth” signal to your brain that you’re not eating as much as you actually are. In other words, these foods literally tell your brain that you’re not full, even though you’re eating a lot of calories.


Sensory-specific response. Your brain likes variety. When it comes to food, if you experience the same taste over and over again, then you start to get less pleasure from it. In other words, the sensitivity of that specific sensor will decrease over time. This can happen in just minutes.

Junk foods, however, are designed to avoid this sensory specific response. They provide enough taste to be interesting (your brain doesn’t get tired of eating them), but it’s not so stimulating that your sensory response is dulled. This is why you can swallow an entire bag of potato chips and still be ready to eat another. To your brain, the crunch and sensation of eating Doritos is novel and interesting every time.


Memories of past eating experiences. This is where the psychobiology of junk food really works against you. When you eat something tasty (say, a cookie), your brain registers that feeling. The next time you see that food, smell that food, or even read about that food, your brain starts to trigger the memories and responses that came when you ate it. These memories can actually cause physical responses like salivation and create the “mouth-watering” craving that you get when thinking about your favorite foods.

These factors all combine to make processed food tasty and desirable to our human brains. When you combine the science behind these foods with the incredible prevalence of food (cheap fast food everywhere), eating healthy becomes very hard to do.


II. How to Make Healthy Eating Easier

Most people think that building better habits or changing your actions is all about willpower or motivation. But the more I learn, the more I believe that the number one driver of behavior change is your environment.

Your environment has an incredible ability to shape your behavior. Nowhere is this more true than with food. What we eat on a daily basis is often a result of what we are presented.

Let me share an interesting experiment to show you exactly what I mean…

The Importance of Environment for Healthy Eating

Anne Thorndike is a primary care physician at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Thorndike and her colleagues conducted a six-month study that was published in the American Journal of Public Health.

This study secretly took place in the hospital cafeteria and helped thousands of people develop healthy eating habits without changing their willpower or motivation in the slightest way. Thorndike and her team utilized a concept known as “choice architecture.” Choice architecture is just a fancy word for changing the way the food and drinks are displayed, but, as it turns out, it makes a big difference.

The researchers started by changing the way drinks were displayed in the cafeteria. Originally, all refrigerators were filled with carbonated soft drinks. The researchers made sure that water was added to each refrigerator and also placed baskets of bottled water throughout the room.

What happened? Over the next 3 months, the number of soda sales dropped by 11.4 percent. Meanwhile, bottled water sales increased by 25.8 percent.

Similar adjustments and results were made with food options. Nobody said a word to the people who ate at the cafeteria. The researchers simply changed the environment and people naturally followed suit.

Choice architecture is even more important when you’re already stressed, tired, or distracted. If you’re already worn-down, you’re probably not going to go through a lot of effort to cook a healthy dinner or fit in a workout. You’ll grab or do whatever is easiest.

That means that if you take just a little bit of time today to organize your room, your office, your kitchen, and other areas, then that adjustment in choice architecture can guide you toward better choices even when your willpower is fading.

How to Eat Healthy Without Noticing

Brian Wansink is a professor at Cornell University, and he has completed a variety of studies on how your environment shapes your eating decisions. Many of the ideas below come from his popular book, Mindless Eating. Here are some of his best practical strategies for using choice architecture to make healthy eating easier.

1. Use smaller plates. Bigger plates mean bigger portions. And that means you eat more. According to a study conducted by Wansink and his research team, if you made a simple change and served your dinner on 10-inch plates instead of a 12-inch plate, you would eat 22% less food over the course of the next year.

On a related note, if you’re thinking “I’ll just put less food on my plate” … it’s not that simple. The picture below explains why. When you eat a small portion off of a large plate, your mind feels unsatisfied. Meanwhile, the same portion will feel more filling when eaten off of a small plate. The circles in the image below are the same size, but your brain (and stomach) doesn’t view them that way.

2. Want to drink less alcohol or soda? Use tall, slender glasses instead of short, fat ones.

Our brain has a tendency to overestimate vertical lines. In other words, taller drinks look bigger to our eyes than round, horizontal mugs do. And because height makes things look bigger than width, you’ll actually drink less from taller glasses. In fact, you will typically drink about 20% less from a tall, slender glass than you would from a short, big glass.

3. Use plates that have a high contrast color with your food. When the color of your plate matches the color of your food, you naturally serve yourself more because your brain has trouble distinguishing the portion size from the plate. Because of this, dark green and dark blue make great plate colors because they contrast with light foods like pasta and potatoes (which means you’re likely to serve less of them), but don’t contrast very much with leafy greens and vegetables (which means you’re likely to put more of them on your plate).

4. Display healthy foods in a prominent place. For example, you could place a bowl of fruits or nuts near the front door or somewhere else that you pass by before you leave the house. When you’re hungry and in a rush, you are more likely to grab the first thing you see.

5. Wrap unhealthy foods in tin foil. Wrap healthy foods in plastic wrap. The old saying, “out of sight, out of mind” turns out to have some truth to it. Eating isn’t just a physical event, but also an emotional one. Your mind often determines what it wants to eat based on what your eyes see. Thus, if you hide unhealthy foods by wrapping them up or tucking them away in less prominent places, then you are less likely to eat them.

6. Keep healthy foods in larger packages and containers, and unhealthy foods in smaller ones. Big boxes and containers tend to catch your eye more, take up space in your kitchen and pantry, and otherwise get in your way. As a result, you’re more likely to notice them and eat them. Meanwhile, smaller items can hide in your kitchen for months. (Just take a look at what you have lying around right now. It’s probably small cans and containers.)

26 mai 2009

Frises comparatives

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 18:23


Un nouvel outil disponible sur wikiwix , la frise comparative entre les différentes personnalités.

Ce gadget permet de se rendre compte en un clin d’oeil quels étaient les contemporains de Beaudelaire ou bien de répondre à la question « Abraham Lincoln et Beaudelaire auraient-ils pu prendre un café ensemble », toujours utile si vous êtes sélectionné en tant qu’ami à Qui veut gagner des Millions :).

Un clic sur le nom d’une personnalité vous permet d’avoir une infobulle reliant les articles de Wikipedia ou bien une frise représentant les personnes qui ont traversé la vie de celle-ci.

Le formulaire en haut à droite permet d’atteindre directement une période ou une année précise.

Plus sérieusement, cette nouvelle frise s’inscrit dans le travail de fourmi que nous effectuons en ce moment grâce au travail de la communauté Wikipedia.

En effet, la richesse des documents produits nous permet d’envisager des formes de visualisation originales.

Imaginez la quantité de papiers qu’il faudrait afin de réaliser l’intégralité de ces frises.

Cette outil est accessible sur Wikipedia en plaçant dans votre fichier Monobook.js cette commande :


Il inaugure par là même une nouvelle WikiwixSearch qui améliore les fonctionnalités du moteur de recherche du MediaWiki.

Mais avant tout, nous allons rendre disponible ces frises pour les autres langues.

Je remercie une fois encore la communauté Wikipedia qui grâce à son travail permet des innovations en matière de développement informatique.

Pascal Martin

19 juin 2008

Frise Wikipedia // Wikinews disponible pour les Webmasteurs

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 18:00

Nous avons repris le principe d’une fameuse régie publicitaire, afin de proposer à la communauté des webmasteurs, les frises.
Il suffit juste de cliquer sur l’image Code Javascript en dessous des frises pour ouvrir la fenêtre copier le code et le mettre sur votre site à l’emplacement où vous souhaitez le voire apparaître et voilà.
Nous vous tiendrons informer via ce blog au sujet des mises à jours et des frises que nous allons produire.

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Disponibilité de la frise

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 15:19

Suite à l’article d’abondance , nous avons décidé de rendre la frise accessible directement sur notre page d’accueil.
Il suffit de cliquer sur la date du jours pour accéder directement à la frise.
Nous remercions M. Olivier Andrieu pour nous avoir fait remarqué ce manque de disponibilité.
Par là même occasion nous vous signalons également  l’article d’Ouriel Ohayon pour avoir signalé la sortie des frises sur techcrunch.

18 juin 2008

wikiwix frise l'actualité

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 18:00


Toujours dans un souci d’augmenter la visualisation des projets soeurs de la Fondation Wikimedia, nous nous sommes attaqués aujourd’hui à friser sur l’actualité.
En effet l’un des projets de la Fondation est wikinews , c’est un recueil qui permet à n’importe quel internaute de déposer des actualités.
D’un autre côté, une frise sur l’actualité est un moyen sympathique de savoir ce qui s’est passé dans le monde.
Nous sommes à peu près sûrs que nous allons retrouver ce concept sur plusieurs sites dans les prochaines semaines.

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Bonne actu

17 juin 2008

Frise historique

Filed under: frise — Pascal Martin @ 9:18

Sur wikiwix nous venons de sortir les frises historiques. Cette 1Z0-517 fonctionnalité repose sur les pages éphémérides de Wikipedia.

Elle est mise en valeur sur Wikiwix à l’affichage d’une recherche par l’almanach.

Ce projet s’incorpore dans un chantier qui est de proposer aux internautes d’autres visualisations des articles.
C’est une piste que nous avons déjà exploré au travers de l’atlas .
En effet, la qualité des tags html de Wikipedia permette de réaliser un traitement de000-284 l’information autre et ainsi d’offrir des visualisations non linéaire.
AInsi nous avons pour objectif de proposer des biographies, discographies, comparées au format frise.

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