Wikipedia & Linterweb

5 octobre 2009

The Science of Healthy Eating

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 16:32

If you are feeling confused about what to eat, you are not alone. You have probably heard some fitness experts talk about good foods, bad foods, healthy foods, and clean foods. Some talk about food like it’s a drug. Others spend time trying to stay away from some of their favorite foods. And then there are the food police who shame you for, let’s say, eating dessert (Are you really going to eat that cookie?) as if one cookie will ruin your life forever. Read more about alpilean.

Every diet guru talks about what to eat. Instead, I will like to discuss why we eat the way we do and how we can change that. The purpose of this article is to share the science and strategy you need to get the results you want.

I. Nutrition: How to Eat Healthy and Stick to It

We will examine the science behind why we crave juck food and how food scientist create foods that leads to cravings

II. How to Make Healthy Eating Easier

We will look into the importance of the environment for healthy eating. How you can eat healthy without noticing. Then  we will discuss on some idea on what to eat, ways to eat healthy without feeling guilty.

III. How to Stick to a Healthy Eating Habit

We will address the root problem to your unhealthy eating habit. Teach you how to Say No to Temptation with a one word phrase that will help you eat healthy for the rest of your life.

I. The Science of Healthy Eating

The benefits of good nutrition are fairly obvious to most of us. You have more energy, your health improves, and your productivity blossoms. Healthy eating also plays a huge role in maintaining a healthy weight, which means a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, certain cancers, heart problems, high blood pressure, and a host of other health ailments. (Genetics also plays a significant role.)


But if there are so many good reasons for healthy eating, why is it so difficult to actually do? To answer that question, we should start by learning why we crave junk food. 



Why We Crave Junk Food


Steven Witherly is a food scientist who has spent the last 20 years studying what makes certain foods more addictive than others. Much of the science that follows is from his excellent report, Why Humans Like Junk Food.

According to Witherly, when you eat tasty food, there are two factors that make the experience pleasurable.

First, there is the sensation of eating the food. This includes what it tastes like (salty, sweet, umami, etc.), what it smells like, and how it feels in your mouth. This last quality known as “orosensation” can be particularly important. Food companies will spend millions of dollars to discover the most satisfying level of crunch in a potato chip. Food scientists will test for the perfect amount of fizzle in a soda. These elements all combine to create the sensation that your brain associates with a particular food or drink. This is how phenq works.

The second factor is the actual macronutrient makeup of the food — the blend of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates that it contains. In the case of junk food, food manufacturers are looking for a perfect combination of salt, sugar, and fat that excites your brain and gets you coming back for more.

Here’s how they do it…


How Food Scientists Create Cravings

There is a range of factors that scientists and food manufacturers use to make food more addictive.

Dynamic contrast. Dynamic contrast refers to a combination of different sensations in the same food. In the words of Witherly, foods with dynamic contrast have “an edible shell that goes crunch followed by something soft or creamy and full of taste-active compounds. This rule applies to a variety of our favorite food structures; the caramelized top of a creme brulee, a slice of pizza, or an Oreo cookie, the brain finds crunching through something like this very novel and thrilling.”

Salivary response. Salivation is part of the experience of eating food, and the more a food causes you to salivate, the more it will swim throughout your mouth and cover your taste buds. For example, emulsified foods like butter, chocolate, salad dressing, ice cream, and mayonnaise promote a salivary response that helps to fload your taste buds with goodness. This is one reason why many people enjoy foods that have sauces on them. The result is that foods that promote salivation do a happy little tap dance on your brain and taste better than ones that don’t.

Rapid food meltdown and vanishing caloric density. Foods that rapidly vanish or “melt in your mouth” signal to your brain that you’re not eating as much as you actually are. In other words, these foods literally tell your brain that you’re not full, even though you’re eating a lot of calories.


Sensory-specific response. Your brain likes variety. When it comes to food, if you experience the same taste over and over again, then you start to get less pleasure from it. In other words, the sensitivity of that specific sensor will decrease over time. This can happen in just minutes. These are the most legal steroids.

Junk foods, however, are designed to avoid this sensory specific response. They provide enough taste to be interesting (your brain doesn’t get tired of eating them), but it’s not so stimulating that your sensory response is dulled. This is why you can swallow an entire bag of potato chips and still be ready to eat another. To your brain, the crunch and sensation of eating Doritos is novel and interesting every time.


Memories of past eating experiences. This is where the psychobiology of junk food really works against you. When you eat something tasty (say, a cookie), your brain registers that feeling. The next time you see that food, smell that food, or even read about that food, your brain starts to trigger the memories and responses that came when you ate it. These memories can actually cause physical responses like salivation and create the “mouth-watering” craving that you get when thinking about your favorite foods.

These factors all combine to make processed food tasty and desirable to our human brains. When you combine the science behind these foods with the incredible prevalence of food (cheap fast food everywhere), eating healthy becomes very hard to do.


II. How to Make Healthy Eating Easier

Most people think that building better habits or changing your actions is all about willpower or motivation. But the more I learn, the more I believe that the number one driver of behavior change is your environment.

Your environment has an incredible ability to shape your behavior. Nowhere is this more true than with food. What we eat on a daily basis is often a result of what we are presented.

Let me share an interesting experiment to show you exactly what I mean…

The Importance of Environment for Healthy Eating

Anne Thorndike is a primary care physician at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston. Thorndike and her colleagues conducted a six-month study that was published in the American Journal of Public Health.

This study secretly took place in the hospital cafeteria and helped thousands of people develop healthy eating habits without changing their willpower or motivation in the slightest way. Thorndike and her team utilized a concept known as “choice architecture.” Choice architecture is just a fancy word for changing the way the food and drinks are displayed, but, as it turns out, it makes a big difference.

The researchers started by changing the way drinks were displayed in the cafeteria. Originally, all refrigerators were filled with carbonated soft drinks. The researchers made sure that water was added to each refrigerator and also placed baskets of bottled water throughout the room.

What happened? Over the next 3 months, the number of soda sales dropped by 11.4 percent. Meanwhile, bottled water sales increased by 25.8 percent.

Similar adjustments and results were made with food options. Nobody said a word to the people who ate at the cafeteria. The researchers simply changed the environment and people naturally followed suit.

Choice architecture is even more important when you’re already stressed, tired, or distracted. If you’re already worn-down, you’re probably not going to go through a lot of effort to cook a healthy dinner or fit in a workout. You’ll grab or do whatever is easiest.

That means that if you take just a little bit of time today to organize your room, your office, your kitchen, and other areas, then that adjustment in choice architecture can guide you toward better choices even when your willpower is fading.

How to Eat Healthy Without Noticing

Brian Wansink is a professor at Cornell University, and he has completed a variety of studies on how your environment shapes your eating decisions. Many of the ideas below come from his popular book, Mindless Eating. Here are some of his best practical strategies for using choice architecture to make healthy eating easier.

1. Use smaller plates. Bigger plates mean bigger portions. And that means you eat more. According to a study conducted by Wansink and his research team, if you made a simple change and served your dinner on 10-inch plates instead of a 12-inch plate, you would eat 22% less food over the course of the next year.

On a related note, if you’re thinking “I’ll just put less food on my plate” … it’s not that simple. The picture below explains why. When you eat a small portion off of a large plate, your mind feels unsatisfied. Meanwhile, the same portion will feel more filling when eaten off of a small plate. The circles in the image below are the same size, but your brain (and stomach) doesn’t view them that way.

2. Want to drink less alcohol or soda? Use tall, slender glasses instead of short, fat ones.

Our brain has a tendency to overestimate vertical lines. In other words, taller drinks look bigger to our eyes than round, horizontal mugs do. And because height makes things look bigger than width, you’ll actually drink less from taller glasses. In fact, you will typically drink about 20% less from a tall, slender glass than you would from a short, big glass.

3. Use plates that have a high contrast color with your food. When the color of your plate matches the color of your food, you naturally serve yourself more because your brain has trouble distinguishing the portion size from the plate. Because of this, dark green and dark blue make great plate colors because they contrast with light foods like pasta and potatoes (which means you’re likely to serve less of them), but don’t contrast very much with leafy greens and vegetables (which means you’re likely to put more of them on your plate).

4. Display healthy foods in a prominent place. For example, you could place a bowl of fruits or nuts near the front door or somewhere else that you pass by before you leave the house. When you’re hungry and in a rush, you are more likely to grab the first thing you see.

5. Wrap unhealthy foods in tin foil. Wrap healthy foods in plastic wrap. The old saying, “out of sight, out of mind” turns out to have some truth to it. Eating isn’t just a physical event, but also an emotional one. Your mind often determines what it wants to eat based on what your eyes see. Thus, if you hide unhealthy foods by wrapping them up or tucking them away in less prominent places, then you are less likely to eat them.

6. Keep healthy foods in larger packages and containers, and unhealthy foods in smaller ones. Big boxes and containers tend to catch your eye more, take up space in your kitchen and pantry, and otherwise get in your way. As a result, you’re more likely to notice them and eat them. Meanwhile, smaller items can hide in your kitchen for months. (Just take a look at what you have lying around right now. It’s probably small cans and containers.)

27 août 2009

Okawix obtient le support de pour sa traduction.

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 12:11

Linterweb est heureux de vous annoncer que son navigateur de consultation de Wikipédia en mode déconnecté, Okawix, vient d’être admis dans la liste des projets dont la traduction est soutenue par, la plateforme de régionalisation des projets libres.

Ainsi la traduction d’Okawix sera-t-elle à partir de maintenant prise en charge par les membres de la communauté

Nous souhaiterions exprimer ici nos chaleureux remerciements à Nike et Siebrand, qui s’occupent du projet, ainsi qu’aux nombreux membres de la communauté (entre autres Michawiki,Fryed-peach, Hosiryuhosi, Naudefj, Umherirrender, Bennylin, ‎Александр Сигачёв, Toliño, Kiranmayee, Purodha, Fulup, Cedric31) qui, depuis avant hier, ont déjà eu le temps de commencer la traduction d’Okawix en plus de dix langues !

Si vous souhaitez apportez votre contribution, n’hésitez pas à vous rendre sur la page d’accueil du projet de traduction d’Okawix, que vous trouverez ici :

14 août 2009

Présentation d’Okawix (Wikipedia en mode offline).

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 13:35

Okawix vous permet de récupérer la totalité des articles de Wikipédia, avec ou sans images, de telle manière que vous puissiez les consulter en mode déconnecté.

Okawix vous permet de consulter les articles de Wikipédia aussi bien que de ses projets partenaires (Wikisource, Wiktionary, Wikiquote, Wikibooks, …) dans 253 langues.

Il permet également d »effectuer des recherches sur ces articles en passant par le moteur de recherche Wikiwix, développé par Linterweb.

Okawix, lui aussi développé par la société Linterweb, est un logiciel conçu, initialement, pour lire les articles des différents projets de la fondation Wikimédia (Wikipédia, Wikibooks, Wikiversity, Wiktionary, Wikiquote, Wikispecies, Wikinews, Wikisource, … ; mais Okawix est en réalité capable de lire n »importe quel document HTML).

Une de ses particularités est qu »il vous permet d »enregistrer facilement sur un support de stockage informatique (par exemple, le disque dur de votre ordinateur, un CD, ou une clef USB, …) la totalité des articles d »un projet Wikimédia (Wikipédia, …), puis de consulter ces articles en mode déconnecté (c »est-à-dire que, une Avec les paris sportifs, le Poker, le et les Games sur bwin, vous êtes sûr d’y retrouver les deux. fois récupérés les articles d »un projet à partir, par exemple, d »Internet ou d »un CD,  vous pouvez consulter les articles même sans être connecté à Internet).

Vous pouvez de plus choisir d »enregistrer les articles avec ou sans les images (pour réduire l »espace de stockage nécessaire aux articles).

Okawix est diffusé sous la licence GPL (donc, entre autres, le logiciel est gratuit, et toute personne intéressée peut consulter les codes sources à l »adresse et les modifier).

Il utilise les technologies Mozilla (XUL/Javascript, composants XPCOM en C ) et fonctionne aussi bien sous le populaire système d »exploitation Linux que sous les systèmes d »exploitation Windows ou MacOS.

Okawix est disponible gratuitement en téléchargement sur Internet à l »adresse suivante : Si votre accès Internet est lent, notre site vous offre également la possibilité d »acheter des clefs USB contenant Okawix et tous les articles des différents projets de la fondation Wikimédia dans une ou plusieurs langues de votre choix (totalité de Wikipédia, totalité de Wikisource, … avec les images).

29 juillet 2009

Installation d'Okawix sous MacOS.

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 16:01

Récupérez notre logiciel Okawix en vous rendant à l’adresse suivante :

Cliquez sur le symbole de MacOS.

Une fenêtre s’ouvre vous montrant la progression du téléchargement d’Okawix.

Quand le téléchargement s’achève, l’assistant d’installation de MacOS démarre automatiquement et prend en charge l’installation en vous guidant pas à pas.

Suivez simplement les instructions de l’assistant d’installation.

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À la fin de l’installation, vous pouvez lancer Okawix en ouvrant le Finder. Le répertoire Programmes (qui contient tous les programmes installés sur votre ordinateur) contient un sous-répertoire Linterweb, dans lequel vous trouverez le programme Okawix.

Double-cliquez sur le programme Okawix pour le démarrer.

Alternativement, vous pouvez également acheter une clef USB pré remplie à l’adresse suivante :

Pour éventuellement, quand vous le souhaiterez, désinstaller Okawix, il vous suffira de prendre le répertoire Linterweb du répertoire Programmes et de le placer dans la corbeille (votre mot de passe vous sera éventuellement demandé).

23 juillet 2009

Techniques, Goals and Benefits of Defensive Driving!

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 16:15
Defensive Driving

Defensive driving: two simple words that have deep meaning when it comes to your own defense on wheels. Every day, we share the road with many different types of drivers, vehicles, and potential hazards. Traffic accidents can happen in the blink of an eye, and sometimes, we have no control over the behavior of other drivers.

However, in a world full of uncertainty, there is a method we can put into practice to increase safety and keep our vehicles safe. This is defensive driving, an approach that not only changes how we drive, but also how we perceive the traffic around us.

In this TransTRACK article, we will explore the important concepts and principles of defensive driving. We will invite you to understand its purpose and benefits, as well as learn practical techniques that you can apply every time you hit the road. Defensive driving isn’t just about driving more carefully; this is key to avoiding accidents and keeping you, your passengers, and others sharing the road with you safe. Visit for more detailed information.

What is meant by defensive driving?

Defensive driving is a concept in driving that emphasizes efforts to drive in a more careful, alert and defensive manner to reduce the risk of traffic accidents. The main principle of defensive driving is to anticipate potential dangers on the road, act wisely to avoid them, and always be ready to overcome unsafe behavior from other drivers.

Some key principles of defensive driving include:

  • Be alert: Always maintain alertness when driving, especially on busy roads and in bad weather.
  • Obey traffic rules: Following traffic rules and speed limits is important for safety.
  • Avoid aggressive drivers: Avoid confrontations with angry or aggressive drivers. It is better to give way and maintain a safe distance.
  • Observing the environment: Always pay attention to road conditions, changes in traffic, and danger signs such as traffic lights and signs.
  • Safe distance: Always maintain a safe distance from vehicles in front, so as to have time to respond if they make a sudden maneuver.
  • Avoid using devices: Avoid using cell phones or other devices while driving, as these can distract and increase the risk of accidents.
  • Implement safe maneuvering techniques: Using signal lights, making careful lane changes, and stopping at stop signs or red lights are examples of safe maneuvering techniques.

Defensive driving aims to help reduce the risk of accidents, protect drivers, passengers and other road users, and help create a safer and more responsible driving environment. This can be a very important approach to minimize traffic accidents and maintain travel safety.

What is the purpose of defensive driving?

The main goal of defensive driving is to increase road safety and reduce the risk of accidents. Some specific goals of defensive driving include:

Prevent Accidents

Prevent traffic accidents by anticipating dangers and taking appropriate action to avoid them.

Protecting Life and Property

Reduce the risk of injury or damage to the vehicle by driving defensively and alertly.

Reduces the Risk of Serious Accidents

By following the principles of defensive driving, we can reduce the chances of being involved in a serious or fatal accident.

Reduces Stress

Driving carefully and defensively can help reduce stress associated with traffic and driving in potentially risky environments.

Obey Traffic Laws

Obeying traffic rules is one of the important goals of defensive driving, because it helps prevent violations and legal action.

Reducing Operational Costs

Defensive driving can also help reduce fuel costs and vehicle maintenance costs by reducing excessive acceleration and braking.

Reducing Workplace Accidents

Defensive driving also applies to commercial drivers, and one of its goals is to reduce the risk of workplace accidents, especially for drivers carrying out duties in business vehicles.

Maintaining Driver Reputation

Driving well and defensively can help maintain a reputation as a responsible and safe driver.

Defensive driving is a proactive approach to driving that focuses on preventing accidents rather than simply responding to situations as they arise. By understanding and applying its principles, drivers can achieve these goals and contribute to road safety.

Advantages of defensive driving

Defensive driving has a number of benefits that include comfort, safety and economy. The following is a further explanation of these benefits:


Defensive driving can create a more comfortable driving experience. By always being aware of road hazards, you can reduce surprises and stress while driving.

Following traffic rules and maintaining a safe distance from vehicles in front can also create a smoother traffic flow and reduce congestion.


Safety is one of the main benefits of defensive driving. By driving defensively, you can avoid accidents or at least reduce their impact.

Anticipating other drivers’ dangerous behavior and taking precautions such as avoiding aggressive drivers can help protect yourself and your passengers.


Defensive driving can also save you money. By driving more efficiently, you can reduce your vehicle’s fuel consumption, save money at the gas pump, and reduce exhaust emissions.

Avoiding serious accidents or injuries will also save you money on vehicle repairs and medical care.

In addition to these three main benefits, defensive driving can also help you maintain a good driver track record, which can be beneficial in terms of insurance and your reputation as a driver. In addition, applying defensive driving principles can help create a safer and friendlier traffic environment for all road users, which will ultimately benefit society as a whole.

22 juillet 2009

Okawix sur la page de download de Wikipedia

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 9:59


Hier soir, nous avons reçu une reconnaissance qui nous fait extrêment plaisir. En effet Okawix fait parti des logiciels reconnus comme aide pour récupérer le contenu de Wikipedia puisqu’un lien a été positionné sur la page de download de Wikipedia.



21 juillet 2009

Installation d’Okawix sous Windows.

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 11:30

Récupérez notre logiciel Okawix en vous rendant à l’adresse suivante :

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Cliquez sur le symbole de Windows.

Une petite fenêtre s’ouvre, et vous propose d’enregistrer ce fichierRobe demoiselle d’honneur rouge sur votre ordinateur. Suivez les instructions affichées et enregistrez le fichier à l’endroit de votre choix.

Alternativement, vous pouvez également acheter une clef USB pré remplie à l’adresse suivante viagra medication :

Rendez-vous ensuite à l’endroit où est sauvegardé le fichier et double cliquez sur le fichier pour exécuter le programme d’installation d’Okawix. Un assistant d’installation prend alors en charge
Robe demoiselle d’honneur rose l’installation et vous guide pas à pas dans l’installation. Un répertoire Okawix est créé dans le menu Démarrer > Programme. Ce répertoire contient deux liens : Okawix et Uninstall Okawix. Uninstall Okawix vous permettra de désinstaller Okawix,
Robe demoiselle d’honneur violette lorsque vous le souhaiterez. Okawix vous permet de lancer l’application Okawix.

16 juillet 2009

Okawix est en vente sur Amazon

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 18:55


Okawix est en vente sur Amazon. Le logiciel comprend l’intégralité des projets de la Fondation Wikimedia en langue francophone.

Plus aucune excuse pour ne pas avoir Wikipedia partout.


13 juillet 2009

Wikipedia en mode offline

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 12:23

Bonjour à tous,

je suis content de vous annoncer la sortie en avant première d’Okawix. Notre offline reader est en opensource et permet de consulter n’importe quelle projets de la fondation en mode déconnecté avec les images.

Okawix vous permet de télécharger l’intégralité de Wikipedia, de Wikisource, de Wiktionary, de Wikiquote, de Wikibooks dans plus de 250 langues.

Notre plateforme de téléchargement permet d’accueillir d’autres données que les projets de la Fondation.

Ce produit est destiné à la diffusion du contenu libre de droit pour les pays dont l’accès à l’internet est restreint, c’est pourquoi nous proposons également d’acquérir des clés USB pré chargés.

Okawix est évidement valable pour Windows, Linux et Mac.

Pascal Martin

9 juillet 2009

Retour aux sources

Filed under: okawix — Matthieu @ 17:52


Vous êtiez nombreux à nous le réclamer et nous l »avions promis, c »est maintenant chose faite : les sources d »Okawix sont disponibles. Vous pouvez d »ores et déja les consulter sur le dépôt du projet Okawix, hébérgé sur SourceForge.

Vous trouverez inclus dans les Det skapte en stor strom av spillere som gikk for a finne nye pengespill a la seg underholde av. sources non seulement le logiciel en lui même, mais aussi une version portable de la bibliothèque Zeno ainsi que les différents composants nécessaires au bon fonctionnement d »Okawix.

La sortie officielle d »Okawix est prévue pour Lundi.

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